Wage garnishments are stopped instantaneously… except that different state laws and procedures can effect what happens to the current paycheck.
Bankruptcy is a federal proceeding governed by federal law, but state law often plays into it as well. This question about stopping wage garnishments is a good example of the mix of federal and state law.
Except in rare circumstances (mostly involving income taxes and student loans), your wages cannot be garnished for repayment of a consumer debt before the creditor sues you in court and gets a judgment. That lawsuit will almost always be in state court, because the jurisdiction of federal courts is limited. The vast majority of the time debtors do not respond to such lawsuits by the legal deadlines, so the creditors win their judgments by default. Once your creditor has such a state court judgment in hand, it must then follow state law in collecting on it.
But states’ garnishment laws vary widely. Most states permit wage garnishment in some form, but a few restrict it to only very select kinds of debts (like child support, taxes, and/or student loans). Other states which do allow wage garnishment for conventional debts often have special garnishment statutes favoring some of those same select debts. State laws also differ on what part of a paycheck is subject to garnishment compared to the part that is “exempt,” or protected. And laws differ on the details of garnishment procedure, which can become critical as we return to the topic of this blog—how fast a bankruptcy stops a garnishment.
The moment your bankruptcy is filed, the “automatic stay” goes into effect. The filing itself operates as a “stay,” or a stopping, of virtually all collection activity. It operates as an immediate and one-sided court order against creditors, made effective by the very act of filing the bankruptcy case. So the bankruptcy filing and the automatic stay stops a wage garnishment in its tracks.
But what if the bankruptcy is filed within just a day or two after the money has been taken out of your wages under a state court garnishment order but not yet turned over by your payroll office to the creditor? What does the Bankruptcy Code’s automatic stay require here when it says that the bankruptcy filing stops “the enforcement, against the debtor or against property of the estate, of a judgment obtained before the commencement of the [bankruptcy] case”? (Section 362 (a)(2) of the Bankruptcy Code.) Money that was taken out of your paycheck before your bankruptcy case was filed is not “property of the estate,” which consists of all your assets as of when your case is filed. But arguably it’s not your money either as of the time when your case is filed because it was already legitimately taken from you by the garnishment order. So can the creditor get that money that your employer is holding, or would that be a violation of the automatic stay?
Because different state laws may have different answers to the question of who owns money that has been garnished from your wages but not yet forwarded to the creditor, whether the automatic stay prevents that money from going to the creditor can turn on those different state laws.
Overall, reputable creditors tend to be cautious about violating the automatic stay, and so will usually err on the side of caution to prevent doing so. But other creditors may be more willing to be aggressive, especially if the state’s statutes and/or courts have given them some cover to do so.
The bottom line is that your experienced bankruptcy attorney will be able to tell you two things:
1) what the interplay between the bankruptcy code’s automatic stay and your state’s garnishment law means for a particular paycheck of yours; and
2) whether your specific garnishing creditor tends to be cautious or aggressive about garnishments stopped by bankruptcy.